During September 10-14, 1984, we held a Research Workshop at the Lake Arrowhead Conference Center, California, bringing togeth er leaders in the field of electronic spatial sensors for the blind from the psychology, engineering, and rehabilitation areas. Our goal was to engage these groups in discussion with one another about prospects for the future of electronic spatial sensing, in the light of emerging technologies and the increasing sophistica tion of behavioral research related to this field. The papers in this book give an update on several of the key research traditions in thi s fi e 1 d. Broader overvi ews are provi ded in the paper by Brabyn, and in our Historical Overview, Final Commentary and the Introductions to each section. In a field as complex as this, some overlap of discussion is desirable and the reader with a serious interest in this field is advised to sample several opinions. This volume, and the conference on which it is based, received assistance from many people and organizations. The Scientific Affai rs Divi sion of the North Atl antic Treaty Organization sup ported the conference as part of their program of Advanced Research Workshops, and the Science and Technology to Aid the Handicapped Program of the National Science Foundation provided additional major financial support. The Center for Social and Behavioral Sciences Research of the University of California, Riverside provided financial as well as major logistical support.