Clash of Empires presents an introduction to European history in the first half of the sixteenth century. Europe was riven by religious revolt as the emerging forces of Protestantism challenged the common teachings of Catholicism. Peace was shattered repeatedly and the Ottoman Empire, struggled for dominance and territory. The continent was further destabilised as an increase in population, food crises, falling wages and growing urbanisation undermined traditional social and economic structures. Clash of Empires is part of the Cambridge Perspectives in History series. The book matches the requirements of the OCR examination specifications. It is suitable for all Advanced Subsidiary (AS) students, as well as students and undergraduates needing an introduction to the period. It also contains a document study section on the German Reformation.