This is a reprint of the revised and enlarged fourth edition originally published in 1903. Five new selections were added in this edition, thereby bringing it down to the end of the nineteenth century. In 1882 the president and fellows of Harvard elected Benjamin Rand to the Walker Fellowship which permitted him to travel and study abroad. He proceeded at once to Heidelberg where he studied under the celebrated philosopher Kuno Fischer. Before returning home he travelled much in Germany, Switzerland, Italy and France. Dr. Rand is the third man whom Harvard ever admitted to the degree of Ph.D. in the department of philosophy. His thesis presented for this degree was "Consciousness and Immortality." He made outstanding contributions in Philosophy and he was internationally known as a Philosopher.