The relevance of cognitive rehabilitation for people with dementia is becoming increasingly accepted by researchers and practitioners in the field. This special issue draws together examples of state-of-the-art research and systematic review by experts in this exciting and growing area. The contributors show how cognitive rehabilitation approaches can be applied, in different ways, to help optimise functioning and address specific difficulties across the full spectrum of severity. While the main focus is on the more commonly diagnosed forms of dementia, treatment possibilities for people with fronto-temporal dementia are also explored. Cognitive rehabilitation interventions need to be grounded in a clear assessment of the profile of strengths and limitations in cognitive functioning, and to demonstrate where possible that treatment effects extend beyond improvement on target measures to have a meaningful impact on wellbeing and quality of life. For this reason, the special issue includes contributions that explore detailed aspects of cognitive functioning or describe new developments in evaluating quality of life in dementia. Cognitive rehabilitation, it is suggested, should be viewed as one important component of a holistic approach to helping people with dementia, their families, and those who care for them. This special issue seeks both to provide information about what has already been achieved and to encourage and stimulate further progress.